Attig and Brockton (2013)
Attig, Najah, and Paul Brockton. “The Local Roots of Corporate Social Responsibility.” Working paper (St. Mary’s University, Halifax), 2013.
From the authors' abstract: "We provide new evidence that stakeholder proximity plays a significant role in determining corporate social responsibility (CSR). We show that firms are more likely to engage in CSR initiatives when they are headquartered in areas where a large fraction of the population makes charitable donations. We also find a positive correlation between CSR initiatives and the firm’s proximity to large populations of senior citizens and long-term institutional investors... Overall, our study suggests that CSR practices largely conform to the social customs and expectations of local geographic communities."
Link (published paper 2017): https://econpapers.repec.org/article/kapjbuset/v_3a142_3ay_3a2017_3ai_3a3_3ad_3a10.1007_5fs10551-015-2757-3.htm