Attig and Brockton (2013)

Attig, Najah, and Paul Brockton.  “The Local Roots of Corporate Social Responsibility.”  Working paper (St. Mary’s University, Halifax), 2013.

From the authors' abstract:  "We provide new evidence that stakeholder proximity plays a significant role in determining corporate social responsibility (CSR). We show that firms are more likely to engage in CSR initiatives when they are headquartered in areas where a large fraction of the population makes charitable donations. We also find a positive correlation between CSR initiatives and the firm’s proximity to large populations of senior citizens and long-term institutional investors... Overall, our study suggests that CSR practices largely conform to the social customs and expectations of local geographic communities."

Link (published paper 2017):