Sturm, Andreas, Mathis Wackernagel, Kaspar Muller. The Winners and Losers in Global Competition. Zurich: Verlag Ruegger, 2000.

Evaluates the relationship between ecological performance and economic competitiveness of 44 nations. The authors compare rankings from a competitiveness index developed by the World Economics Forum with ecological ratings from a system developed by Wackernagel. The ecological ratings seek to measure a country's "ability to regenerate the resources the country consumes and to absorb the environmental waste it produces."

Although formal statistical analysis is not provided, only four countries (Italy, Belgium, Mexico, and Turkey) appear in the eco-efficient/non-classification. The other 16 eco-efficient countries are classified as competitive, suggesting "either eco-efficiency already offers a competitive edge, or that competitiveness and high eco-efficiency are not mutually exclusive."

The study was sponsored by Union Bancaire Privee of Geneva, Switzerland.